References + Resources

References + Resources

Referencing Resources

Why are resources necessary and why must references be provided?

Canine hydrotherapy and physiotherapy is an emerging and rapidly growing sector in animal healthcare. It's currently an unregulated sector in the UK that is striving to demonstrate a high standard of evidence based clinical practice with canine welfare at its core.

For these reasons all interventions (assessment, treatment, management strategies and home programmes) should be clinically reasoned and have a sound evidence base. In order to advance clinical skills, therapists need to be able to read, digest, critically appraise and extrapolate the data from the available literature.

Identifying robust sources of evidence and allowing the data to positively influence practice is the way to raise standards.


Therapists need to be able to demonstrate an advanced understanding of the pathophysiology associated with conditions and disorders, providing a sound evidence base for applied canine interventions.

What constitutes a good resource?

When researching a topic it's preferred to use academic sources over other formats of available information. The majority are peer reviewed and published, so greater credence can be added to the reliability of the information provided.

Academic sources are;

  • Authoritative: Academic sources identify the qualifications and expertise of the author. A source written by a recognised expert in a field is more likely to be trustworthy, although expertise should never be accepted blindly and all data should be critically reviewed
  • Sourced: Academic writing is careful to credit the origins of information and hypotheses, with citations, a reference list or bibliography
  • Peer-reviewed: A board of scholarly reviewers from within the industry have evaluated the material and made an impartial appraisal of the quality, consistency and accuracy, so consequently approved it for publication
  • Objective: Academic sources aim to examine a topic fairly. There may be a conflict of interest or bias so you must critically evaluate all sources
  • Written for academics: Academic sources target university lecturers, students and professionals, to provide an evidence base for clinical practices and an advanced understanding of pathophysiology

Types of academic resources are;

  • Books (both print and e-book)
  • Journal articles (both print and online)
  • Published reports and conference proceedings

Resources Available

On face to face practicals at K9HS

We have well developed libraries which are available for you to access. While it is generally not permitted for resources to be taken-off site, it may be possible on an individual basis following discussion with the centre manager to loan resources overnight while on placement.

Off site

There are a multitude of journals which have online access that you will find relevant to your CPD studies. While many of these will require paid subscriptions to access the full content there is a vast number of resources available free of charge via open access agreements.

Online Peer Reviewed Free Resources

Open Access Multiple Veterinary Journal Databases

Wiley have a vast library. The link provided will take you to all open access veterinary articles available through this site.

Science Direct – huge number of resources but there is no link to just the open access articles. Look out for the open padlock to depict free access, you can change the search criteria so only free articles are displayed in results.

Research Gate – Requires the user to sign up but it is a free service. On request the author of desired resources is contacted to grant access permissions.

IVIS – Requires you to sign up to access International Conference proceedings for free.

Pubmed – is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Provides abstracts and links to full content access sites.

Biomed (BMC) - Scientific publisher specialising in open access journal publication. Hosts over 200 scientific journals describing itself as the first and largest open access science publisher.

International Open Access Journals

Core Relevant Journals + Publications


In no particular order of relevance some articles in these publications are open access however the majority are subscription only or pay per view.

  • Veterinary Times
  • Journal of Small Animal Practice
  • Companion Animal
  • Veterinary Record
  • In Practice
  • The Veterinary Nurse
  • Veterinary Surgery
  • The Veterinary Nursing Journal
  • Veterinary and Comparative Orthopedics and Traumatology
  • Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice
  • Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Recommended Online Learning Resources

Interactive Musculoskeletal + Neuroanatomy Software

Colorado State University - Virtual anatomy tool: Excellent learning tool featuring dissected cadavers. Examine skeletal and muscular systems with tuition and tests available. -Requires Adobe flash player so best viewed via the desktop site

Real 3D Anatomy: collaboration between Creative Dimension Software Ltd and the Centre for Comparative and Clinical Anatomy at the University of Bristol. On this site you can currently view two 3D presentations of canine (dog) anatomy in your browser. The main presentation is a complete 3D dog bone set.

Dissection Videos

Muscles of the thoracic limb

Muscles of the pelvic limb

The Online Veterinary Anatomy Museum (OVAM): Aims to provide access to veterinary anatomical resources in the form of a virtual museum.

Veterinary Anatomy Museum- College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota: This website is an umbrella site that provides access to individual course-ware websites and other teaching resources in PDF format.

Imaging Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois: Provides a basic atlas of normal imaging anatomy of domestic animals. It is designed as an aid for veterinary students beginning their study of diagnostic imaging. It is not meant to be a comprehensive reference of imaging anatomy

WikiVet – Large collections of high quality online veterinary educational resources. Requires username and password however registration is free. (NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH WIKIPEDIA)

Gait + Movement

University of Minnesota – Gait and foot fall patterns: The purpose of this web site is to enable you to recognize limb patterns of the major gaits exhibited by cursorial quadrupeds (running animals).

Heather Caprette: Independent and interactive website utilising motion capture to analysis normal and abnormal gait patterns, benefits from a learning module and quiz.



Generation of canine movement

Simulated quadrupedal movement

Research Articles

Griffin, T. M., Main, R. P. and Farley, C. T. (2004) ‘Biomechanics of quadrupedal walking: how do four-legged animals achieve inverted pendulum-like movements’, Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 207, pp. 3545-3558

Gregerson, C. S. and Carrier, D. R. (2004) ‘Gear ratios at the limb joints of jumping dogs’, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 1011–1018.

Pathophysiology of Pain (nociception)

Reference Websites

Veterinary Anesthesia & Analgesia Support Group – excellent peer reviewed evidence based resource.

The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Global Pain Council Guidelines – WSAVA is membership is made up of veterinary organisations from all over the world, which are concerned with companion animals. They publish internationally accepted evidence based guidelines and frameworks for practice.



The ability to be able to accurately and succinctly reference is an important skill every professional should gain during their career learning journey.

It may seem tedious, time consuming and unnecessary now; however if veterinary rehabilitation is going to continue to grow and gain credibility we all have a responsibility to contribute to the published evidence base.

Consequently we must be able to rationalise our theories and evidence base our hypotheses. There are two places that referencing occurs; citations within the text and at the end on the document, allowing the reader to locate the source of the information to check authenticity.

Harvard Citation System

Harvard Citation System is the preferred referencing method for UK higher education institutions.

Referencing with the text

Citations within the text are dependent upon the structure of the sentence:

  • Within a sentence or supporting a statement then the surname of the author and the year of publication must be included in brackets; for example: Primary uterine inertia can be subcategorised as either complete or partial (Jackson 1995)…….
  • If the authors name occurs naturally within a sentence the author name included and the date added in brackets, for example Jackson (1995) states that primary uterine…..
  • Multiple published documents within the same year by the same author must be denoted with a lowercase letter after the date in brackets; for example Jackson (1995a)…………… The distinction must also be made within the reference list at the end of the assignment.
  • If there are two authors both must be cited before the date; for example Bennett and Smith (2015)
  • If there are more than two authors you should use the abbreviation et al, meaning ‘and others’ within your text to denote this. The reference list at the end of your assignment must list all of the authors in full.
  • If using more than one source to support a statement then they must be included within a common set of brackets. For example (Jackson 1995, Smyth 2015).
  • Direct quotes are not advised, however should it be unavoidable please use speech marks to indicate that this is a copy of a statement made by another author and include the surname, year and page number in brackets “there is a higher incidence of hip dysplasia in…….” (Scofield 2001 p332)

Referencing at the end

All articles are accompanied by an accurate list of references and a bibliography.

What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?

References are documents and publications that are cited within your work to add weight to statements and support hypotheses, whereas a bibliography is a list all the materials that have been consulted while writing you assignment yet not referenced.

Referencing an article

Authors surname, initials, (year of publication); title, journal with which it was published in italics; volume, issue and page number.

Pretzer, S. D. (2008) ‘Medical management of canine and feline dystocia’, Theriogenology, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 332-336

Referencing a book (authored by an individual)

Authors surname, initials, (year of publication); title in italics, place of publication; name of publishers.

Jackson, P.G.G. (1995) Handbook of veterinary obstetrics. London: Saunders.

Referencing a book (authored by more than one individual)

Authors surname, initials and second author (year of publication); title in italics, place of publication; name of publishers.

Silverstein, D. C. & Hopper, K. (2008) Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. Missouri: Saunders.

Edited books

There are two types of edited books, those which are only attributed the editor of the publication and those within which chapters are accredited to named individual authors.

Referencing edited books, where only the editor is named include: Editor surname, initials (ed.) (Year) ‘Title’, Edition (if not 1st). Place of publication: Publisher.

Johnston, S. D., Root Kustritz, M. V. & Olson P. N. S. (2001) Canine and Feline Theriogenology. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders.

Referencing an author and their chapter within an edited book include: Author of chapter surname, initials. (Year). ‘Title of chapter’ In: Editor of book surname(s), initails. (Ed. Or Eds, if multiple) Title of book. Edition (if not 1st). Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

Linde-Forsberg, C. & Eneroth, A. (2000) ‘Abnormalities in Pregnancy, Parturition and the Periparturient Period’ in Ettinger, J. & Feldman E. (Eds.) Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 5th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Congress proceedings

Author’s surname, initials, (year). ‘Title’, Name of congress. Place of publication: Publisher.

Romagnoli, S. (2007) ‘How I treat non-obstructive dystocia in the bitch and queen’, SEVC Southern European Veterinary Conference, Ithaca NY: SEVC

Secondary referencing

This is the practice of referring to a publication that has not actually been read by the person referencing – but which has been cited in a publication seen. Every effort to read the original source should be made but if this is not possible, it's important that it is clear exactly what has been read. For example, Silverstein and Hopper (2008) cited Keen and Badger (2001) ...

All reference lists and bibliographies should be presented primarily in alphabetical order. Those from the same author should be secondarily categorised in chronological order.

This Bitesize Canine Resource Library was produced for you and is owned by K9HS Courses