Gluteal Muscles

Gluteal Muscles

This is the Gluteal Muscles PDF for you to download

The canine Gluteal Muscle mass is a key power muscle group along with the Hamstring group.

The pelvic muscles are found between the dog's pelvis and thigh and there are 2 main groups of muscles;

  • Lateral pelvic muscle group = Tensor Fascia Lata (TFL) muscle, Gluteal muscles and the Piriformis muscle. There is an ongoing debate in the canine anatomy world, as many think this muscle is part of the Deep Gluteal muscle, whilst others consider it to be a separate muscle in its own right.

  • Medial pelvic muscle group; Internal Obturator, External Obturator, Gemelli and Quadratus Femoris muscles.

The canine Gluteal muscle mass consists of the Middle Gluteal, Deep Gluteal + Superficial Gluteal muscles.

The Gluteal muscle mass fully integrates with the Superficial Gluteal fascia + Gluteal fascia (deep).

  • Middle Gluteal; is covered by the skin and fascia in the most part, and by the Superficial Gluteal caudally. The origin discussed in the PDF above, also includes a few fibres from the dorsal sacroiliac ligament and the deep Gluteal fascia

Clinical Tip: Your anatomical therapeutic touch and palpation skills need to accurately and reliably distinguish between the different components of this muscle. Trigger points are often located in the fascial guttering between the Middle and Superficial Gluteal muscles.

  • Deep Gluteal; is completely covered by the Middle Gluteal and often has a small bursa deep to its tendon of insertion, at the greater trochanter of the femur
  • Piriformis; the ongoing debate is whether this is part of the canine Deep Gluteal muscle or is a separate muscle, caudal to the Deep Gluteal

  • Superficial Gluteal; is the most superficial of the 3 components of this muscle mass and is small and almost rectangular in shape. It covers parts of the Middle Gluteal and Piriformis muscles and arises from the proximal half of the sacrotuberous ligament, a major supporting structure of the pelvis. There is sometimes a small bursa present deep to its insertion on the small third trochanter in about a third of dogs

Clinical Tip: For accurate and relevant information, it's very useful to palpate the dog in different postures as the dog's natural fascia tension changes depending on the posture the dog is in. Muscle tension also alters with postures as well as the emotional status of each dog in the clinical environment and during the therapeutic palpation experience. Movement Enrichment Techniques (Therapeutic Handling treatment techniques + Clinic Enrichment techniques) are very important to attain accurate and reliable assessment information as well as optimising the treatment programme for each dog.

Tuber ischii (AKA ichiatic truberosity) palpation.
Tuber ischii (AKA ichiatic truberosity) palpation.
Therapeutic static asymmetrical alignment technique to facilitate palpation of the left tuber sacrale.

More about Fascia

Fascia is a continuous covering around and in between muscles, like a body suit with a layered structure that envelopes, separates and connects the muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

This amazing connective tissue is strong and mobile and has many important functions. Its clinical value cannot be underestimated when looking at canine functional activities and mobility.

Functions of fascia include:

  • Providing origins and insertions for muscles
  • Serves as an elastic sheath for muscles
  • Forms specialized retaining bands (retinacula) and fibrous sheaths for tendons to hold tendons and their sheaths in place
  • Provides pathways for passage of vessels and nerves and surrounds them as neurovascular sheaths
  • Permits gliding of one structure on another
  • Acts as an elastic stocking in limbs and makes muscle contractions more effective as a pump
  • Limits and controls the spread of pus
  • When shortened due to injury or disease, fascia may limit movement
  • Strips of fascia are sometimes used for repair of tendinous or aponeurotic defects
  • Contains proprioceptive endings in aponeuroses and retinacula with a kinaesthetic and mechanical function

Supporting proven clinical techniques with underpinning scientific facts, promotes safe + effective practice that optimises canine motion, balance, postures + functional activities. This aims to assist dog's being their very best version, mobility wise, no matter what their age, breed or problem.

Gluteal Innervation

This muscle mass is innervated by the gluteal nerve which is divided into the cranial and caudal gluteal nerves. The cranial nerve arises mainly from L6, L7, S1 nerves.

The Middle and Deep Gluteal muscles are innervated by the cranial gluteal nerve. This nerve leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen and passes into the lateral muscles of the pelvis.

Whereas, the Superficial Gluteal muscle is innervated by the smaller caudal gluteal nerve (arises from L7 nerve). It's nerve route is along the medial surface of the shaft of the ilium and passes through the greater sciatic foramen and then between Piriformis and middle Gluteal muscles, entering and innervating the Superficial Gluteal muscle.

Lily modelling a "well fitted Y shaped harness" optimising her natural balanced stance, postures and motion.
Lily modelling a "well fitted Y shaped harness" optimising her natural balanced stance, postures and motion.
A "well fitted Y shaped harness" holistically supports natural balanced motion for the dog.
A "well fitted Y shaped harness" holistically supports natural balanced motion for the dog.

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